Bibliography of Hypospadias Review Above


Articles used in the review

American Academy of Pediatrics (1975). The timing of elective surgery on the genitalia of male children with particular reference to undescended testicles and hypospadias. Pediatrics56, 479-483.

American Academy of Pediatrics (1996). Timing of elective surgery on the genitalia of male children with particular reference to the risks, benefits, and psychological effects of surgery and anesthesia. Pediatrics97, 590-594.

American Academy of Pediatrics (2000). Evaluation of the newborn with developmental anomalies of the external genitalia. Pediatrics106, 138-142.

Arap, S., & Mitre, I.A. (2000). Penoscrotal hypospadias. Brazilian Journal of Urology26, 304-314.

Aron, C. (1973). Les facteurs neuro-hormonaux de la sexualité chez les mammifères. In J.B. Pontalis (Ed.), Bisexualité et différences des sexes (pp. 107-171). Paris : Gallimard.  

Atala, A. (2002). Urethral mobilization and advancement for midshaft to distal hypospadias. Journal of Urology168, 1738-1741.

Austin, P.F., Siow, Y., Fallat, M.F., Cain, M.P., Rink, R.C., & Casale, A.J. (2002). The relationship between Müllerian inhibiting substance and androgens in boys with hypospadias. Journal of Urology168, 1784-1788.    

Babut, J.M. (1996). Comment je traite un hypospadias? Progrès en Urologie6, 64-73.

Baskin, L.S. (2000). Hypospadias. Anatomy, embryology, and reconstructive techniques. Brazilian Journal of Urology26, 621-629.

Baskin, L.S. (2001). Hypospadias: a critical analysis of cosmetic outcomes using photography. British Journal of Urology International87, 534-539.

Baskin, L.S., Duckett, J.W., & Lue, T.F. (1996). Penile Curvature. Urology48, 347-356.

Baskin, L.S., Himes, K., & Colborn, T. (2001). Hypospadias and endocrine disruption: is there a connection ? Environmental Health Perspectives109, 1175-1182.

Belman, B.A. (1997). Hypospadias update. Urology49, 166-172.

Belman, B.A., & Kass, E.J. (1982). Hypospadias repair in children less than 1 year old. Journal of Urology128, 1273-1274.

Berenbaum, S.A. (2003). Management of children with intersex conditions: Psychological and methodological perspectives. Growth Genetics & Hormones19, 1-6.

Berg, R., & Berg, G. (1983a). Castration complex: Evidence from men operated for hypospadias. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica68, 143-153.

Berg, R., & Berg, G. (1983b). Penile malformation, gender identity and sexual orientation. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica68, 154-166.

Berg, R., Berg, G., Edman, G., Svensson, J., & Åström, G. (1983c). Androgens and Personality in normal men and men operated for hypospadias in childhood. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica68, 167-177.

Berg, R., Berg, G., & Svensson, J. (1982). Penile malformation and mental health. A controlled psychiatric study of men operated for hypospadias in childhood. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica66, 398-416.

Berg, R., Svensson, J., & Åström, G. (1981). Social and sexual adjustment of men operated for hypospadias during childhood: a controlled study. Journal of Urology125, 313-317.

Bouhafs, A., Mege, J.L., Dubois, R., Chaffange, P., & Dodat, H. (2002). Technique de Duplay modifiée dans le traitement de l’hypospadias. A propos de 585 cas. Annales d’Urologie36, 196-203.

Bracka, A. (1999). Sexuality after hypospadias repair. British Journal of Urology International83, 29-33.

Bruézière, J. (1996). Traitement de l’hypospadias balanique et balano-préputial, selon la technique de l’avancement avec reconstruction du prépuce. Annales d’Urologie30, 182-186.

Bukowski, P., & Zeman, P.A. (2001). Hypospadias: of concern but correctable. Contemporary Pediatrics2, 89.

Caldamone, A.A., Edstrom, L.E., Koyle, M.A., Rabinowitz, R., & Hulbert, W.C. (1998). Buccal mucosal grafts for urethral reconstruction. Urology51, 15-19.

Cendron, M., & Ellsworth, P. (1999). Traitement des hypospadias complexes par le technique de Snodgrass. Annales d’Urologie, 33, 364-367.

Cheng, E.Y., Vemulapalli, S.N., Kropp, B.P., Pope, J.C., Furness, P.D., Kaplan, W.E., & Smith, D.P. (2002). Snodgrass hypospadias repair with vascularized dartos flap: The perfect repair for virgin cases of hypospadias? Journal of Urology, 1723-1726.

Chiland, C. (1999). L’identité sexuée. Revue Française de Psychanalyse63, 1251-1262.

Cold, C.J., & Taylor, R.J. (1999). The prepuce. British Journal of Urology83, 34-44.

Coleman, J.W. (1981). The bladder mucosal graft technique for hypospadias repair. Journal of Urology125, 708-710.

Kolligian, M.E., & Firlit, C.F. (2000). The mucosal collar revisited. Urology55, 114-117.   De Sy, W.A., & Hoebeke, P. (1996). Considérations générales sur l’hypospadias. Annales d’Urologie30, 158-159.

De Sy, W.A. (1996a). Quelle technique pour quel hypospadias ? Annales d’Urologie30, 160-166.

De Sy, W.A. (1996b). Le lambeau préputial transversal pédiculé pour la correction d’un hypospadias moyen et sévère. Annales d’Urologie30, 187-191.

Diamond, M. (1997). Sexual identity and sexual orientation in children with traumatized or ambiguous genitalia. The Journal of Sex Research, 34, 199-211.

Diamond, M., & Kipnis, K. (1997). Guidelines for dealing with individuals with ambiguous genitalia. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine151, 1046-1050.

Dolk, H. (1998). Rise in prevalence of hypospadias. Lancet351, 770.

Dorais, M. (1999). Eloge de la diversité sexuelle. Montréal : VLB éditeur. Collection ‘Des hommes et des femmes en changement’.

Dreger, A.D. (1998). Ambiguous sex or ambivalent medicine ? The Hastings Center Report28, 24-35.

Dreger, A.D. (Ed.) (1999). Intersex in the age of ethics. Hagerstown, Maryland: University Publishing Group.

Dreger, A. D. (1999). A history of intersex: from the age of gonads to the age of consent. In A.D. Dreger (Ed.), Intersex in the age of ethics (pp. 5-22). Hagerstown, Maryland: University Publishing Group.

Dubois, R., Pelizzo, G., Nasser, H., Valmalle, A.F., & Dodat, H. (1998). Les fistules de l’urètre après traitement chirurgical d’hypospadias. A propos d’une série de 74 cas. Progrès en Urologie8, 1029-1034.

Eberle, J., Überreiter, S., Radmayr, C., Janetschek, G., Marberger, H., & Bartsch, G. (1993). Posterior hypospadias: long-term followup after reconstructive surgery in the male direction. Journal of Urology150, 1474-1477.

Elbakry, A. (2001). Management of urethrocutaneous fistula after hypospadias repair: 10 years’ experience. British Journal of Urology International88, 590-595.

Ellsworth, P., Cendron, M., Ritland, D. , & Mc Cullough, M. (1999). Hypospadias repair in the 1990’s. AORN Journal69, 148-161.

Encha-Razavi, F., & Escudier, E. (1994). Embryologie clinique. Paris : Masson

Encha-Razavi, F., & Escudier, E. (2000). Embryologie humaine. De la molécule à la clinique (2ème ed.). Paris : Masson.

Erol, A., Baskin, L.S., Li, Y.W., & Liu, W.H.  (2001). Anatomical studies of the urethral plate: why preservation of urethral plate is important in hypospadias repair. British Journal of Urology International85, 728-734.

Facemire, C.F., Gross, T.S., & Guillette, L.J. (1994). Reproductive impairment in the Florida panther: Nature or nurture ? Environmental Health Perspecive, 103, 79-84.

Ferro, F., Zaccara, A., Spagnolli, A., Lucchetti, M.C., Capitanucci, M.L., & Villa, M. (2002). Skin graft for 2-stage treatment of severe hypospadias: back to the future? Journal of Urology168, 1730-1733.

Fredell, L., Kockum, I., Hansson, E., Holmner, S., Lundquist, L., Läckgren, G., Pedersen, J., Stenberg, A., Westbacke, G., & Nordenskjöld, A. (2002). Heredity of hypospadias and the significance of low birth weight. Journal of Urology167, 1423-1427.

Gatti, J.M., Kirsh, A.J., Troyer, W.A., Perez-Brayfield, E.A., & Scherz, H.C. (2001). Increased incidence of hypospadias in small-for-gestational age infants in a neonatal intensive-care unit. British Journal of Urology International87, 548-550.

Gallentine, M.L., Morey, A.F., & Thompson, I.M. (2001). Hypospadias: A contemporary epidemiological assessment. Urology57, 788-790.

Geahart, J.P., & Witherington, R. (1979). The Denis-Browne hypospadias repair revisited. Journal of Urology122, 66-67.

Gershbaum, M.D., Stock, J.A., & Hanna, M.K. (2002). A case for 2-stage repair perineoscrotal hypospadias with severe chordee. Journal of Urology168, 1727-1729.

Gittes, G.K., Snyder, C.L., & Murphy, P.J. (1998). Glans approximation procedure urethroplasty for the wide, deep meatus. Urology52, 499-500.

Glassberg, K.I. (1999). Gender assignment and the pediatric urologist. Journal of Urology161, 1308-1310.

Gray, L.E. (1998). Xenoendocrine disrupters: Laboratory studies on male reproductive effects. Toxicology Letters102-103, 331-335.

Gray, L.E., Wolf, C., Lambright, C., Mann, P.,  Price, M., Cooper, R.L., & Ostby, J. (1999). Administration of potentially antiandrogenic pesticides (procymidone, linuron, iprodione, chlozolinate, p,p’-DDE, and ketoconazole) and toxic substances (dibutyl- and diethylhexyl phthalate, PCB 169, and ethane dimethane sulphonate) during sexual differentiation produces diverse profiles of reproductive malformations in the male rat. Toxicology and Industrial Health15, 94-118

Gray, J., & Boston, V.E. (2003). Glanular reconstruction and preputioplasty repair for distal hypospadias: a unique  day-case method to avoid urethral stenting and preserve the prepuce. British Journal of Urology International91, 268-270.

Guillette, L.J. (2000). Contaminant-induced endocrine disruption in wildlife. Growth Hormone & IGF Research10, 45-50.

Haqq, C.M, & Donahoe (1998). Regulation of sexual dimorphism in mammals. Physiological Reviews78, 1-33.

Harrison, P.T.C., Holmes, P., & Humprey, C.D.N. (1997). Reproductive health in humans and wildlife: are adverse trends associated with environmental chemical exposure? The Science of the Total Environment205, 97-106.

Hayashi, Y., Kojima, Y., Mizuno, K., Tozawa, K., Sasaki, S., & Kohri, K. (2002). Modified technique for dorsal plication for penile curvature with or without hypospadias. Urology59, 584-587.

Hayashi, Y., Kojima, Y., Nakane, A., Maruyama, T., Tozawa, K, & Kohri, K. (2003). A strategy for repairing moderately severe hypospadias using onlay urethroplasty versus onlay-tube urethroplasty. Urology61, 1019-1022.

Hayes, T.B., Collins, A., Lee, M. Mendoza, M., Noriega, N., Stuart, A.A., & Vonk, A. (2002). Hermaphroditic, demasculinized frogs after exposure to the herbicide atrazine at low ecologically relevant doses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America99, 5476-5480.

Hensle, T.W., Tennenbaum, S.Y., Reiley, E.A., & Pollard, J. (2001). Hypospadias repair in adults: adventures and misadventures. Journal of Urology165, 77-79.

Hensle, T.W., Kearney, M.C., & Bingham, J.B. (2002). Buccal mucosa grafts for hypospadias surgery: long-term results. Journal of Urology168, 1734-1737.

Hester, J.D. (2003a) Intersexed and the rhetoric of healing.

Hester, J.D.(2003b). Rhetoric of the medical management of intersexed children.

Hoebeke, P., Boemers, T.M., & De Jong, T.P.V.M. (1996). Technique de Mathieu modifiée pour hypospadias avec chordée modérée. Annales d’Urologie304, 178-181.

Hoebeke, P., De Kuyper, P., & Van Laeke, E. (2002). ‘Batman excision’ of ventral skin in hypospadias repair, clue to aesthetic repair. European Urology42, 5, 520-522.

Hodgson, N.B. (1981). Hypospadias. Journal of Urology, 125, 711.

Holland, A.J., Smith, G.H., Ross, F.I., & Cass, D.T. (2001). HOSE: an objective scoring system for evaluating the results of hypospadias surgery. British Journal of Urology International, 88, 255-258.

Horton, C. E., & Devine, C.J. (1972). Hypospadias and epispadias. New-Jersey : CIBA Pharmaceutical Company.

Hose, J.E., & Guillette, L.J. (1994). Defining the role of pollutants in the disruption of reproduction in wildlife. Environmental Health Perspective103, 87-90.

Howe, E.G. (1999).  Intersexuality: What could careproviders do now? In A.D. Dreger (Ed.), Intersex in the age of ethics (pp. 210-223). Hagerstown, Maryland: University Publishing Group.

Hrabovszky, Z., & Hutson, J.B. (2002). Androgens imprinting of the brain in animal models and humans with intersex disorders: review and recommendations. Journal of Urology168, 2142-2148.

Hughes, I.A. (2001). Minireview: sex differentiation. Endocrinology1428, 3281-3287.

Hughes, I.A. (2002). Intersex. British Journal of Urology International908, 769-776.

Hussain, N., Chaghtai, A., Herndon, A.C.D., Herson, V.C., Rosenkrantz, T.S., & McKenna, P.H. (2002). Hypospadias and early gestation growth restriction in infants. Pediatrics109, 473-478.

Kaefer, M., Diamond, D., Hendren, H., Vemulapalli, S., Bauer, S.B., Peters, C.A., Atala, A., & Retik, A.B. (1999). The incidence of intersexuality in children with cryptorchidism and hypospadias: stratification based on gonad palpability and meatal position. Journal of Urology162, 1003-1007.

Kessler, S.J. (1998). Lessons from the intersexed. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Kim, S., Liu, W., Russel, D.W., Huang, H., Shapiro, E., & Baskin, L.S. (2002). Expression of the androgen receptor in the developing human fetal penis and urethra. Cell & Tissue Research3072, 145-153.

Kipnis, K., & Diamond, M. (1998). Pediatric ethics and the surgical assignment of sex. Journal of Clinical Ethics9, 398-410.    Klijn, A.J., Dik, P., & de Jong, T.P. (2001). Results of preputial reconstruction in 77 boys with distal hypospadias. Journal of Urology165, 1255-1277.

Klip, H., Verloop, J., van Gool, J.D., Koster, M.E., Burger, C.W., & van Leeuwen, F. (2002). Hypospadias in sons of women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero: a cohort study. Lancet359, 1102-1107.

Kreisler, L. (1973). L’enfant et l’adolescent de sexe ambigu ou l’envers du mythe. In J.B. Pontalis (Ed.), Bisexualité et différences des sexes (pp.173-200). Paris : Gallimard.    

Kurzrock, E.A., Jegatheesan, P., Cunha, G.R., & Baskin, L.S. (2000). Urethral development in the fetal rabbit and induction of hypospadias: a model for human development. Journal of Urology164, 1786-1792.

Lapointe, S.P., Wei, D.C., Hricak, H., Varghese, S.L., Kogan, B.A., & Baskin, L.S. (2001). Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of the external genitalia. Urology58, 452-456.

Laqueur, T. (1992). La fabrique du sexe. Essai sur le corps et le genre en occident. Paris : Gallimard. Titre original : Making sex. Body and gender from the Greeks to Freud (1990). Traduit de l’anglais par Gautier, M.    

Larsen, W.J. (1996). Embryologie humaine. De Boek Université. (Le développement du système uro-génital, pp. 235-279).

Leissner, J., Filipas, D., Wolf, H.K, & Fisch, M. (1999). The undescended testis: Considerations and impact on fertility. British Journal of Urology International83, 885-892.

Lepore, A.G., & Kesler, R.W. (1979). Behavior of children undergoing hypospadias repair. Journal of Urology128, 68-70.

Lottman, H. (1998). A propos de l’urologie pédiatrique. Annales d’Urologie32, 4, 183-185.

Macedo, A., & Srougi, M. (2001). Surgery of the external genitalia. Current opinion in Urology11, 585-590.

Manley, C.B., & Epstein, E.S. (1981). Early hypospadias repair. Journal of Urology125, 698-700.

McAleer, I.M., & Kaplan, G. (2001). Is routine karyotyping necessary in the evaluation of hypospadias and cryptorchidism ? Journal of Urology165, 2029-2032.

Mege, J.L., Pelizzo, G., Dubois, R., Arcache, J., Carlioz, P., & Dodat, H. (1999). Technique de Duplay modifiée dans le traitement de l’hypospadias antérieur. Résultats immédiats et à long terme à propos de 321 cas et revue de la littérature. Progrès en Urologie9, 1136-1147.

Melton (2001). New perspectives on the management of intersex. The Lancet357, 2110.

Meyer-Bahlburg, H.F.L. (1999). Gender assignment and reassignment in 46, XY pseudohermaphroditism and related conditions. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism84, 3455-3458.

Mills, C., McGovern, J., Mininberg, D., Coleman, J., Muecke, E., & Vaughan, E.D. (1981). An analysis of different techniques for distal hypospadias repair: The price of perfection. Journal of Urology125, 701-702.

Minto, C.L., Liao, L.M., Woodhouse, C.R.J., Ransley, P.H., & Creighton, S.M. (2003). The effect of clitoral surgery on sexual outcome in individuals who have intersex conditions with ambiguous genitalia: A cross-sectional study. The Lancet361, 1252-1257.

Mondaini, N., Ponchietti, R., Bonafè, M., Biscioni, S., Di Loro, F., Agostini, P., Salvestrini, F., & Rizzo, M. (2002). Hypospadias: Incidence and effects on psychosexual development as evaluated with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Test in a sample of 11649 young Italian man. Urologia Internationalis68, 81-85.

Mondet, F., Johanet, S., Larroquet, M., Van Glabeke, E., & Audry, G. (1999). La cure d’hypospadias antérieur avec une sonde vésicale trans-urétrale: comparaison des hospitalisations ambulatoire avec la sonde ‘entre 2 couches’ et traditionnelle. Progrès en Urologie9, 107-111.

Money, J. (1969). Sex reassignment as related to hermaphroditism and transsexualism. Green, R., & Money, J. (1969). In R. Green & J. Money (Eds.), Transsexualism and sex reassignment (pp.91-113). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press.

Morgan, E.A., Nguyen, S.B., Scott, V., & Adler, H.S. (2003). Loss of Bmp7 and Fgf8 in Hoxa13-mutant mice causes hypospadias. Development130, 3095-3109.

Morgan, J.F., & Mezey, G.C. (1999). Surgery experienced as sexual abuse: A case of pre-pubescent sexual offending and hypospadias. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry4, 543-550.

Moudouni, S., Tazi, K., Nouri, M., Koutani, A., Hachimi, M., & Lakrissa, M. (2001). L’hypospadias de l’adulte. Progrès en Urologie11, 667-669.

Mureau, M.A.M., Slijper, F.M.E., van der Meulen, J.C., Verhulst, F.C., & Slob, A.K. (1995). Psychosexual adjustment of men who underwent hypospadias repair: a norm-related study. Journal of Urology154, 1351-1355.

Mureau, M.A.M., Slijper, F.M.E., Slob, A.K., & Verhulst, F. (1995a). Genital perception of children, adolescents, and adults operated on for hypospadias: a comparative study. The Journal of Sex Research32, 289-298.

Mureau, M.A.M., Slijper, F.M.E., Nijman, R.J.M., van der Meulen, J.C., Verhulst, F.C., & Slob, A.K. (1995b). Psychosexual adjustment of children and adolescents after different types of hypospadias surgery: a norm related study. Journal of Urology154, 1902-1907.

Mureau, M.A.M., Slijper, F.M.E., Slob, A.K., Verhulst, F.C., & Nijman, R. (1996). Satisfaction with penile appearance after hypospadias surgery: the patient and the surgeon’s view. Journal of Urology155, 703-706.

Mureau, M.A.M., Slijper, F.M.E., Slob, A.K., & Verhulst, F. (1997). Psychosocial functioning of children, adolescents, and adults following hypospadias surgery: a comparative study. Journal of Pediatric Psychology22, 371-387.

North, K., Golding, J., & the ALSPAC Study Team (2000). A maternal vegetarian diet in pregnancy is associated with hypospadias. British Journal of Urology International85, 107-113.

Paparel, P., Mure, P.Y., Margarian, M., Feyaerts, A., & Mouriquand, P. (2001). Approche actuelle de l’hypospade chez l’enfant. Progrès en Urologie11, 741-751.

Paparel, P., Mure, P.Y., Garignon, C., & Mouriquand, P. (2001). Translation urétrale de Koff : à propos de 26 hypospades présentant une division distale du corps spongieux. Progrès en Urologie11, 1327-1330.

Paulozzi, L.J. (1999). International trends in rates of hypospadias. Environmental Health Perspectives107, 4, 297-302.

Paulozzi, L.J., Erickson, D.J., & Jackson, R.J. (1997). Hypospadias trends in two US surveillance systems. Pediatrics100, 5, 831-834.

Perovic, S.V., Scepanovic, D.R., Vukadinovic, V.M., Djakovic, N., & Djordjevic, M.L.J. (1999). Technique de désassemblage du pénis: une nouvelle approche de la chirurgie reconstructrice de l’hypospade. Progrès en Urologie9, 371-379.

Pierik, F.H., Burdof, A, Nijman, J.M.R., de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F., Juttman, R.E., & Weber, R.F.A. (2002). A high hypospadias rate in The Netherlands. Human Reproduction17, 1112-1115.

Preves, S.E. (1999). For the sake of the Children: destigmatizing intersexuality. In A.D. Dreger (Ed.), Intersex in the age of ethics (pp. 51-65). Hagerstown, Maryland: University Publishing Group.

Ravasse, P., Petit, T., & Delmas, P. (2000). Hypospadias antérieur: Duplay ou Mathieu ? Progrès en Urologie10, 653-656.

Reiner, W.G. (1999). Psychosexual dysfunction in males with genital anomalies: Late adolescence, Tanner stages 4 to 6. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry38, 865-872.

Richter, F., Pinto, P.A., Stock, J.A., & Hanna, M.K. (2003). Management of recurrent urethral fistulas after hypospadias repair. Urology61, 448-451.

Rittler, M., & Castilla, E.E. (2002). Endocrine disruptors and congenital anomalies. Cadernos de Saúde Pública18, 421-428.

Roberston, M., & Walker, D. (1975). Psychological factors in hypospadias repair. Journal of Urology, 113, 698, 700.

Sandberg, D.E., Meyer-Balbhurg, H.F.L., Aranoff, G.S., Sconzo, J.M., & Hensle, T.W. (1989). Boys with hypospadias: a survey of behavioral difficulties. Journal of Pediatric Psychology14, 491-514.

Sandberg, D.E., Meyer-Bahlburg, H.F.L., Yager, T.J., Hensle T.W., Levitt, S.B., Kogan, S.J., & Reda, E.F. (1995). Gender development in boys born with hypospadias. Psychoendocrinology20, 693-709.

Sandberg, D.E., Meyer-Bahlburg, H.F.L., Hensle, T.W., Levitt, S.B., Kogan, S.J., & Reda, E.F. (2001). Psychosocial development of middle childhood boys with hypospadias after genital surgery. Journal of Pediatric Psychology26, 465-475.

Sanders, C. (2002). A review of current practice for boys undergoing hypospadias repair: from pre-operative work up to removal of dressing post-surgery. Journal of Child Health Care6, 60-69.

Santti, R., Makela, S., Strauss, L., Korkman, J., & Kostian, M.L. (1998). Phytoestrogens: potential endocrine disruptors in males. Toxicology and Industrial Health14, 223-237.

Schober, J.M. (1999). A Surgeon response to the intersex controversy. In A.D. Dreger (Ed.), Intersex in the age of ethics (pp. 161-168). Hagerstown, Maryland: University Publishing Group.

Schultz, J.R., Klykylo, W.M., & Wacksman, J. (1983). Timing of elective hypospadias repair in children. Pediatrics7, 342-351.

Searles, J.M., & Mackinnon, A.E. (2001). The ‘SANAV’ hypospadias dressing. British Journal of Urology International87, 531-533.

Semenza, J.C., Tolbert, P.E., Rubin, C.H., Guillette, L.J., & Jackson (1997). Reproductive toxins and alligator abnormalities at Lake Apopka, Florida. Environmental Health Perspectives105, 1030-1032.

Senkul, T., Karademir, K., Iseri, C., Erden, D., Baykal, K., & Adayener, C. (2002). Hypospadias in adults. Urology60, 1059-1062.

Shankar, K.R., Losty, P.D., Hopper, M., Wong, L., & Rickwood, A.M.K. (2002). Outcome of hypospadias fistula repair. British Journal of Urology International89, 103-105.

Sharpe, R.M. (2003). The estrogen hypothesis – where do we stand now? International Journal of Andrology26, 2-15.

Sheldon, C.A., & Duckett, J.W. (1987). Hypospadias. Pediatric Clinics of North America34, 1259-1271.

Silver, R.I. (2000). What is the etiology of hypospadias ? A review of recent research. Delaware Medical Journal72, 343-347.

Silver, R.I., & Russel, D.W. (1999). 5-alpha-reductase type 2 mutations are present in some boys with isolated hypospadias. Journal of Urology162, 1142-1145.

Singleton, D.W. & Khan, S.A. (2003). Xenoestrogens exposure and mechanisms of endocrine disruption. Frontiers in Bioscience8, 110-118.    

Slijper, F.M.E. (2003). Clitoral surgery and sexual outcome in intersex conditions. The Lancet361, 1236-1237.

Smith, E.D. (1997). The history of hypospadias. Pediatric Surgery International12, 81-85.

Snodgrass, W.T. (1994). Tubularized incised plate urethroplasty for distal hypospadias. Journal of Urology151, 464.    

Snodgrass, W.T. (1999). Tubularized incised plate hypospadias repair: Indications, technique, and complications. Urology54, 6-11.  

Snodgrass, W.T., & Lorenzo, A. (2002a). Tubularized incised plate urethroplasty for proximal hypospadias. British Journal of Urology International89, 90-93.

Snodgrass, W.T., & Nguyen, M.T. (2002b). Current technique of tubularized incised plate hypospadias repair. Urology60, 157-162.

Stecker, J.F., Horton, C.E., Devine, C.J., & McCraw (1981). Hypospadias cripples. Urological Clinics of North America8, 539-544.

Stjernquvist, K., & Clementson Kockum, C. (1999). Bladder exstrophy: Psychological impact during childhood. Journal of Urology162, 2125-2129.

Sugarman, I.D., Trevett, J., & Malone, P.S. (1999). Tubularization of the incised urethral plate (Snodgrass procedure) for primary hypospadias surgery. British Journal of Urology International83, 88-90.    

Sultan, C., Balaguer, P., Terouanne, B., Goerget, V., Paris, F., Jeandel, C., Lumbroso, S., & Nicolas, J. (2001). Environmental xenoestrogens, antiandrogens, and disorders of male sexual differentiation. Molecular and Cellular endocrinology178, 99-105.    

Svensson, J., Berg, R., & Berg, G. (1981). Operated hypospadiacs: late follow-up. Social, sexual and psychological development. Journal of Pediatric Surgery16, 134-135.

Toppari, J. (2002). Environmental endocrine disrupters and disorders of sexual differentiation. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine20, 305, 312.    

Toppari, J., Haavisto, A.M., & Alanen, M. (2002). Changes in males reproductive health and effects of endocrine disruptors in Scandinavian countries. Cadernos de Saúde Pública18, 413-420.

Tortora, G.J., & Grabowski, S.R. (1994). Principes d’anatomie et de physiologie (2ème ed.). De Boek Université.

van der Werff, J.F.A., & Ultee, J. (2000). Long term follow-up of hypospadias repair. British Journal of Plastic Surgery53, 588-592.

van der Werff, J.F.A., & van der Meulen, J.C. (2000). Treatment modalities for hypospadias cripples. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery1052, 600-608.

Viville, C. (1993). L’hypospadias de l’adulte : à propos de 15 observations. Progrès en Urologie3, 415-418.

Vrijheid, M., Amstrong, B., Dolk, H., van Tongeren, M., & Botting, B. (2003). Risk of hypospadias in relation to maternal occupational exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals.  Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 60, 543-550.

Wakefield, J. (2001). Bad news for boys. Linking hypospadias and endocrine disruptors. Environmental Health Perspectives109, A 542.

Walker, M. (1998). The psychological experience of living with hypospadias through verbal descriptions and drawings. Doctoral dissertation. The Union Institute Graduate College.

Weber, R.F.A., Pierik, F.H., Dohle, G.R., & Burdof, A. (2002). Environmental influences on male reproduction. British Journal of Urology International89, 143-148.

Weidner, I.S., Moller, H., Jensen, T.K., & Skakkebaeck, N.E. (1998). Cryptorchidism and hypospadias in sons of gardeners and farmers. Environmental Health Perspectives106, 793-796.

Wese, F.X., Opsomer, R.J., Abi-Aad, A., Veyckemans, F., & Van Cangh, P.J. (1994). Malformations uro-génitales de l’enfant. A propos de l’hypospadias. Louvain Médical113, 101-105.

Wilcox, D.T., & Ransley, P.G. (2000). Medicolegal aspects of hypospadias. British Journal of Urology International86, 327-331.

Wilson, B.E., & Reiner, W.G. (1999). Management of intersex: a shifting paradigm. In A.D. Dreger (Ed.), Intersex in the age of ethics (pp.119-135). Hagerstown, Maryland: University Publishing Group.

Yoshiyuki, K., Hayashi, Y., Kentaro, M., Mogami, M., Sasaki, S., & Kohri, K. (2002). Spermatogenesis, fertility and sexual behavior in a hypospadiac mouse model. Journal of Urology167, 1532-1537.

Zaontz, M.R., & Packer, M.G. (1997). Abnormalities of the external genitalia. Pediatric Clinics of North America44, 1267-1297.

Zemel, S., & Slover, R.H. (2002). Disorders of sexual differentiation. In M.T. Mc Dermot (Ed.), Endocrine secrets (3ème éd.) (pp. 325-334). Philadelphia: Hanley and Belfus.

Adresses Internet articles médicaux 

Avolio, L. (2002). Genital anomalies. e-Medicine Journal.


Bourgeois, M.J. (2002). Microphallus. e-Medicine Journal. 


Hensle, T.W., & Weiner, D.M. (2000). Hypospadias. In E.T. Goluboff (Ed.), Hospital Physician. Urology Board Review Manual, Vol. 8, Part 3.


Hutcheson, J. (2002). Ambiguous genitalia and intersexuality. e-Medicine Journal.


Hutson, J.M. (2002). Cryptorchidism and hypospadias.


Migeon, C.J., Wisniewski, A.B., Brown, T.R., Rock, J.A., Meyer-Bahlburg, H.F.L., Money, J., & Berkovitz (2002a). 46, XY Intersex Individuals: Phenotypic and etiologic classification, knowledge of condition, and satisfaction with Knowledge in adulthood. Pediatrics.


Migeon, C.J., Wisniewski, A.B., Gearhart, J.P., Meyer-Bahlburg, H.F.L., Rock, J.A., Brown, T.R., Casella, S.J., Maret, A., Ngai, K.M., Money, J., & Berkovitz, G.D. (2002b). Ambiguous genitalia with perineoscrotal hypospadias in 46, XY individuals: Long-term medical, surgical, and psychosexual outcome. Pediatrics.


Santanelli, F. (2002). Urogenital reconstruction, penile hypospadias. e-Medicine Journal.



Garnier, M., Delamare, V., Delamare, J., & Delamare, T. (2000). Dictionnaire des termes de médecine (26ème ed.). Paris : Maloine.

Prudhomme C., & d’Ivernois, J.F.(2002). Dictionnaire des maladies à l’usage des professionnels de la santé. Paris : Maloine.